Huguenots Were Descendants of Muslims In Europe

Huguenot history, descriptions, fate in Europe and their occupations and skills etc are so integrally related to Muslims that it is not far-fetched to investigate their being Muslims. Remember it is well known that well before the fall of Muslim Imarrat and Wilayats of Sicily and Spain Muslims had to use two names where one is to hide their Muslim origins when passing through/doing business with people in enemy areas. Recently Maartje van Gelder has highligted this practice in her article "The Republic’s Renegades: Dutch Converts to Islam in Seventeenth-Century Diplomatic Relations with North Africa"  Such a practice is expected when we know that Muslims in Spain remaied active in all levels of economic, political and diplomatic activities that spanned the globe esp Europe and they were recognosed in many denominations, Moors, Moriscos, religionnaires,  Mudijars, crypto-Muslims, Conversos and may also be Huguenots as well.

Huguenots  [(hyooh-guh-nots)]

The French Protestants of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries were frequently persecuted by the government and by the Roman Catholic Church. For a time, the Edict of Nantes allowed them to practice their religion in certain cities. When the edict was revoked by King Louis xiv in the late seventeenth century, many Huguenots left France. Some emigrated to areas now America and Canada.

Qur'anic themes in Huguenot literary productions, e.g see this beautiful poem on God of Nature by Freneau1752-1832 , A Huguenot of New York.

Here are three quotes taken from Chapter 6 Al-Anaam, Translation of Qur'an to precisely point out the continual transmission of Islamic view of the world and mindset through Huguenot Muslim ancestor family environments.

"It is God who splits the grain and the date-stone, brings forth the living from the dead; He brings forth the dead too from the living. So that then is God; then how are you perverted? (95) He splits the sky into dawn, and has made the night for a repose, and the sun and moon for a reckoning. That is the ordaining of the All-mighty, the All-knowing. (96) It is He who has appointed for you the stars, that by them you might be guided in the shadows of land and sea. We have distinguished the signs for a people who know. (97) It is He who produced you from one living soul, and then a lodging-place, and then a repository."

Such is God, your Sustainer: there is no deity save Him, the Creator of everything: worship, then, Him alone -for it is He who has everything in His care. (102) No human vision can encompass Him, whereas He encompasses all human vision: for He alone is unfathomable, all-aware. (103)

"Praise belongs to God who created the heavens and the earth and appointed the shadows and light; then the unbelievers ascribe equals to their Lord. (1) It is He who created you of clay, then determined a term and a term is stated with Him; yet thereafter you doubt. (2) He is God in the heavens and the earth; He knows your secrets, and what you publish, and He knows what you are earning. (3)"

Philip Freneau was born in New York of Huguenot ancestry on 2nd January 1752, and died near Freehold, New Jersey, in 1832.

On the Universality and Other Attributes of the God of Nature

ALL that we see, about, abroad,
What is it all, but nature's God?
In meaner works discovered here
No less than in the starry sphere.
In seas, on earth, this God is seen;
All that exist, upon Him lean;
He lives in all, and never strayed
A moment from the works He made:
His system fixed on general laws
Bespeaks a wise creating cause;
Impartially He rules mankind
And all that on this globe we find.
Unchanged in all that seems to change,
Unbounded space is His great range;
To one vast purpose always true,
No time, with Him, is old or new.
In all the attributes divine
Unlimited perfectings shine;
In these enwrapt, in these complete,
All virtues in that centre meet.
This power doth all powers transcend,
To all intelligence a friend,
Exists, the greatest and the best
Throughout all the worlds, to make them blest.
All that He did He first approved,
He all things into being loved;
O'er all He made He still presides,
For them in life, or death provides.

In 1534, a member of  the persecuted french Huguenots, Jacques Cartier of St. Malo began the exploration of New France.  It is claimed that Cartier was Catholic, though he came from a Huguenot family and his expedition was financed by Philippe de Chabot, a Huguenot.  The first Huguenot colony was established in 1540 at Cap-Rouge, near present day Québec City,  Canada, by Jean-François de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval, a Huguenot.  This settlement was abandoned in 1543.

Raven Row art gallery East London U.K. has the above trade card of Francis Rybot, one of the two Huguenot mercers and weavers who occupied Raven Row in the 18th century. At the sign of the cat, a tabby cat, from the French tabis, “striped silk taffeta”, a rich watered silk, from Middle French atabis (14c.), from Arabic attabiya, from Attabiy, a neighbourhood of Baghdad where such cloth was first made, named for Prince Attab of the Umayyad dynasty.

World Famous Silk Textile Technology of Al-Andalus Reaches Britain through Huguenots

Al-Andalus became a center of silk production, including both import of silk thread and cultivation of silkworms. Styles and technologies from eastern Muslim lands kept pace with Andalusian fashions at the court and among the wealthy. Silk textiles became important articles of the export trade. Andalusian silks at first had similar design motifs like those of Persian, Byzantine, and Mesopotamian origin. Andalusian weavers also copied styles popular in Baghdad.

The Huguenot influence on English silk weaving

Huguenot Logo (pendant) is a sign for Source of light and Enlightenment earlier used by
Pre-Islamic Hanifi people (who were earliest Muslim converts).

An Inscription with Quranic Verse Bismillah  and  Huguenot Logo found in Arabia Town of Kilwa in Arabia:
PreIslamic Bismillah Inscription

Arab. arch. epig. 2011: 22: 243 –252 (2011), Arabian archeology and epigraphy, Saba Farès, University of Nancy 2/, GREMMO UMR 5195, France; 22 Quai Tilsitt, 69002 Lyon, France.

Tuareg or also called Agadez crosses are still used as ethic, national, community symbols and also in jewelry of the Muslim Tuareg people in Niger and Mali. Muslim Tuareg Cross has many alternative names include African, Agadez, Amazigh and Berber Cross.

 Tuareg (/ˈtwɑː.ɹɛɡ/ or /ˈtwɑɹ.ɛɡ/, also spelled Twareg or Touareg; endonym Imuhagh) are Berber people with a traditionally nomadic pastoralist lifestyle. They are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. Huguenots have been mentioned in the history of these people and their lands in many ways as settles, visitors, traders etc.

The Ballycottin cross brooch, an Anglo-Carolingian brooch of the eighth or ninth century with a black glass centre featuring an Arabic inscription, either sha['a] [a]llah (or `bismillah'?) or tubna lilllah, that is 'As God wills' (or 'In the name of Allah'?) or 'We have repented to God' . Click the image for a larger view of the brooch or here for a larger view of the inscription alone (image: British Museum

Coins with Islamic Enlightenment Sign, Symmetric Cross

Webster, L. & Backhouse, J., The Making of England: Anglo-Saxon Art and Culture, AD 600–900 (London, 1991)
European and Ottoman literature of the eighteenth century provides details of close relationship of Huguenots with the Ottomans. p 8, The Ottoman State and Its Place in World History: Introduction, Kemal H. Karpat,  BRILL, 1974
Hundreds of fugitive religionnaires (Huguenots) carried off to the Ottoman regencies after the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes.

Huguenot history, descriptions, fate in Europe and their occupations and skills etc are so integrally related to Muslims that it is not far-fetched to investigate their being Muslims. Remember it is well known that well before the fall of Muslim Imarrat and Wilayats of Sicily and Spain Muslims had to use two names where one is to hide their Muslim origins when passing through/doing business with people in enemy areas. Such an investigation becomes more of a possibility when we know that Muslims in Spain and other parts of Europe are known in many denominations, Moors, Moriscos, religionnaires,  Mudijars, crypto-Muslims, Conversos and may also be Huguenots as well.

Huguenots are also known  as Boers (Afrikaners).
Huguenots and Camisards as aliens in France, 1598-1789 : the struggle for religious toleration /Brian E. Strayer, Lewiston, N.Y. : E. Mellen Press, c2001.

"The Huguenot saga in the seventeenth-century France contained an event tragically  similar to the expulsion of the Spanish Moriscos. For it was in 1685 that Louis XIV, after some preliminary persecutions, revoked the Edict of Nantes.... The king's Protestant subjects were thereby compelled to become Catholics or leave their country. Between two and three hundred thousand Huguenots, it has been estimated, emigrated in consequence. This act of tyrannous injustice, like the Morisco expulsion, was perpetrated in the name of unity as understood by an absolute sovereign."

Rebels and Rulers, 1500-1660: Provincial rebellion: Revolutionary Civil Wars, 1560-1660, By Pérez Zagorín

What was so fundamentally different with Huguenots that saving that they could sacrifice everything?
The info gleaned from the literature indicates that their prayers was like Muslims perform in congregations "secret prayer assemblies of their brothers in religion"
 p 127, War and Religion after Westphalia, 1648–1713 ,Dr David Onnekink, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., Jun 28, 2013

"The Protestants, called Huguenots in France, had carried their organization so far that they were no longer a simple religious body, organized for worship in the Protestant faith. They were trying to set up a state of their own, independent of the king. " P347, PATHWAYS OF EUROPEAN PEOPLES AN OUTLINE STORY OF EUROPEAN NATIONS THAT FORM THE CHIEF BACKGROUND OF AMERICAN CIVILIZATION BY  BERTHA B. AND ERNEST COBB, BOSTON, THE ARLO PUBLISHING COMPANY, NEWTON UPPER FALLS, MASS 1922

The above hints something more. That may be an Islamic Imara(Islamic state) like Andalus or Ottoman. Why not- because it was a model alternate to French and Spanish kings and Castillian King & Melkite church alliance?

"Louis had thousands of Protestants in his realm. They were skilled, industrious, able, of the middle class on whom the nation depended for its strength and wealth.
But Louis XIV was a Catholic, and these people did not worship as he wished all his people to worship,
"Am I not lord over all my people?" said Louis. ''Let them worship as I direct. I say it for their own good."

The Protestants still preferred their own faith. Then Louis sent soldiers to force obedience. Hundreds were killed in cold blood. Their rights and privileges were taken away.
In desperation, thousands of Protestant Huguenots packed up their goods and escaped from France. Some went to Holland, some to England, some to Germany, and many to America.
These Protestants had been among the most useful citizens of France. By this persecution Louis greatly weakened a land already sadly crippled by war and famine. "


Why ignore the fact that Turks frequently have surnames Haji and Hugueonots with surnames Turk?

French settlers, Isaac de Turk and his family, who settled on the Pennsylvania frontier on the mid-1700s. Several of Johan's sons served in the Continental Army during the Amarican Revolutionary War.

Johan de Turk became a member of the Moravian faith .

Moravian faith was originally formed by John Hus or Huss. John Hus is one of the forefathers of anti-trinitarian, original Unitarian(Monotheistic) movement which rose due to Spanish kings allowance to Arab trinitarian Malkite Nasara to confront Islamic and Clunaic chhurch concepts of strict monotheism.

"To indicate the scope of Judaizing influence on the Protestant revolt, we need only mention the names of such leaders among the revolutionaries as Michael Servetus, initiator of the Unitarian movement, who took his anti-Trinitarian ideas from the Marrano teachers of his native Spain; John Hus, whose followers were called "the friends of the Jews" by Saint John Capistrano, and whose sentence of condemnation by the Church branded him as, "Thou accursed Judas, who, breaking away from the counsels of peace, hast consulted with the Jews"; John Calvin, whom the rigidly-Protestant Dr. Robert Willis lumps with the other "Judaic" reformers and charges they "interspersed the religion of Christ with such an amount of Judaism that their Christianity was in many respects a relapse into the bonds of the Law"; Martin Luther, who, though later embittered against the Jews who would not worship his religious authority, started off his movement by saying, "The Jews belong to Christ more than we. I beg, therefore, my dear Papists, if you become tired of abusing me as a heretic, that you begin to revile me as a Jew."

The Point, Edited Under Fr. Leonard Feeney M.I.C.M. — Saint Benedict Center , January, 1957
JEWISH INVASION OF OUR COUNTRY , Our Culture Under Siege, Author: Father Leonard FeeneyPublisher: Cambridge, Mass., Saint Benedict Center Year: 1957

"Discon- tent helped to spread the doctrinal ideas of Hus and his fol- lowers in these Slavic lands throughout the fifteenth century. And after the Lutheran movement got under way in Saxony it was not long before it spread to Poland and became perma- nently entrenched in Polish Russia. It was not only orthodox Lutheran views that invaded the two countries; more radical opinions made their appearance. Under the patronage of Queen Bona Sforza a humanist society was formed at Cracow of which Francis Lismanini was the leading spirit, and from which there radiated Anti-Trinitarian doctrines. In 1548 the ranks of the religious dissenters in Poland were considerably augmented by the coming of the Bohemian Brethren, or Moravian Brethren, or, as they preferred to call themselves, the Communion of Brethren, a sect holding radical Hussite views"

Page 312,The renaissance, the Protestant revolution and the Catholic reformation in continental Europe (1914), Hulme, Edward Maslin, 1871-1951 Subject: Renaissance; Reformation; Counter-Reformation Publisher: New York, Century Co.

What is the origin of the name Huguenot?

"JOURNEYING DOWN THE road of the French Reformation, one soon en-counters a curious phenomenon. That phenomenon is the word Hugue-not. It refers to the French Calvinists, of course, but whence the name? Does it look French? Is it German? Does it suggest Latin? One comical seventeenth-century dialog declares that it is Greek, meaning "hap-pily knowing."' No one knows for certain. It is an anomaly. Undoubt-edly this is why there are so many theories about the word's deriva-tion. "

Sixteenth Century Journal XIV, No. 3 (1983), The Origin of the Word Huguenot, by Janet G. Gray Valpavarso University

Why not include Hajj, a pilgrimage to Makkah, and Haji, pilgrim or person who has performed a pilgrimage to Makkah, plural Hujjaj,  as its origin for an investigation.
There are medieval manuscripts in Holland, a famous center of Huguenots including this about Musilm pilgrimage to Makkah for Hajj :
The Hague, GA : ms. 36, Guide for travellers to the Holy Land, Annotations on the textContains calendars, prayers and other useful information for travellers to the Holy Land. Ff. 121r-123r contain a list of Arabic words with their Middle Dutch counterparts, ff. 123v-138r a French-to-Middle Dutch conversationguide.Datesecond quarter 16th century

Hajj has been simultaneously related to both as a religious and trade activity from pre-islamic times. Great international caravans from East to west and north to south met on Hajj at outskirts of Makkah to trade their goods. During height of islamic civilization its global importance was huge. Huguenots would have been making use of the Makkan market while they traded from Europe to india. The names of indian cashmere ( from Kashmir) shawls and colourful textile in to Europe and English ( Blighty called ولايتى  Vitality  jewellery to india, South Africa, Australia, America since colonial times are well known.
The word Huguenots is translated as in Arabic as الهوغونوت . The translation seems to preserve the English words's phonetics. There is no doubt that after eradicating Muslim presence European kings and church tried their best to eradicate any signs of Muslim heritage from european literature literature. A famous example of such effort is the translation of word مَلَكيّة  malakite in English it is unjustifiably translated as Malachite. The objective is to hide the fact that the Church had its origins in the Arab christian sect who was allied and partner with Shia Ismaili controlled areas of North Africa especially Sicily, Egypt, Yemen and after Arab kingdoms fell to European kings e.g Normans the Arab Malakia christians heled the new kings run Arabic language courts and public records etc.

"few among the Huguenots were workers of the land. The great majority lived in towns; they were artisans, especially weavers, Those who came to Britain included many skilled craftsmen, silversmiths, watchmakers and. the like, and professional people – clergy, doctors, merchants soldiers, teachers, "

England's 'First Refugees' By Robin Gwynn, Published in History Today Volume: 35 Issue: 5

Note in the above quote that Huguenots in France were not workers of the land i.e probably recent migrants from another land, iberia.

French Huguenots were in contact with the Moriscos in plans against the House of Austria (Habsburgs), which ruled Spain in the 1570s.[1] Around 1575, plans were made for a combined attack of Aragonese Moriscos and Huguenots from Béarn under Henri de Navarre against Spanish Aragon, in agreement with the king of Algiers and the Ottoman Empire, but these projects foundered with the arrival of John of Austria in Aragon and the disarmament of the Moriscos.[2][8] In 1576, the Ottomans planned to send a three-pronged fleet from Istanbul, to disembark between Murcia and Valencia; the French Huguenots would invade from the north and the Moriscos accomplish their uprising, but the Ottoman fleet failed to arrive.[2]

1 Benjamin J. Kaplan, Divided by Faith, p.311

2 Henry Charles Lea, The Moriscos of Spain: Their Conversion and Expulsion, p. 281

"The Huguenots were something more than immigrants seeking a home in a new land. They were refugees, stripped of all human rights, both civil and religious, by the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, and not until the Edict of Toleration, in 1787, could they claim a right to full liberty of conscience in their home land.
In the industrial arts, learning and religious thought, the Huguenots were of the most advanced and enterprising type of civilization, and . the impressions they have made on the institutions and character of 'the lands of their exile were more profound and far reaching in pro- portion' to their numbers than that of any other class of immigrants. This is pre-eminently true of America, as we believe this work will abundantly demonstrate, and we believe that the study of this element of our Colonial population will be pursued With greater interest by future historians as their mighty influence m shaping the character and d estinies of our country is more fully recognized.
With the passing years they disclose the original viriUty of their character by continually adding new names to America's roll of honor. To such imperishable names as Jay, Boudinot, Bozvdoin, Marion and Laurens, of the Provincial period, they have added others of equal greatness, and whose force of character and sterling worth is in no small degree attributable to their Huguenot ancestry.
In later years Presidents Tyler (i), Garfield (2) and Roosevelt, Alexander Hamilton, the Bayards of Delaware, Commodores Stephen Decatur and W. S. Schley, and Admiral George Dewey, then also the poets Whittier (3), Thoreau, Lanier and Emily Bouton, have all con- tributed largely to make America great. "

Memorials of the Huguenots in America, with special reference to their emigration to Pennsylvania (1964), Stapleton, A. (Ammon), 1850-1916, Baltimore, Genealogical Pub. Co , 1901

Huguenots had almost same distaste of idols, icons, pictures of saints as decorations in religious places of worship as Muslims. This as is well-known arises from Abrahamic concept of Monotheistic purity. Abrahams, known as father of the prophets, is described in thw Quran similarly smashed idols in a house of worship.

"Huguenots revenged themselves on the assassins of their co-religionists, by defacing and destroying the churches and monasteries. In their iconoclastic rage they hewed and broke the images, the carvings, and the richly-decorated work of the cathe- drals at Bourges, at Lyons, at Orleans, at Rouen, at Caen, at Tours, and many other places. They tore down the crucifixes, and dragged them through the streets ; they violated the tombs of saints and sove- reigns, and profaned the sacred shrines of the Roman Catholics. " It was," says Henri Martin, " as if a blast of the infernal trumpet had everywhere awakened the spirit of destruction, and the delirious fury grew and became drunk with its own excess." All this rage, however, was but the inevitable reaction against the hideous cruelties of which the Huguenots had so long been the passive victims. They decapitated beautiful statues of stone, it is true ; but the Guises had decapi- tated the living men."


" In 1492, Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, was taken by the soldiers of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, and the Moors were expelled from Spain. In 1496, to appease Isabella, King Manuel of Portugal announced a royal decree banishing the Moors from that portion of the peninsula. The Spanish King Philip III expelled the remaining Moors by a special decree issued in 1609. Fully 3,500,000 Moors, or Moriscos, as their descendants were called, left Spain between 1492 and 1610. Over one million Moriscos made their way to France where the vast majority of them became Huguenots. It is in France where many of the last descendants of the Almoravids, as well as other Berber groups settled. It was along with these that our Moorish ancestors made their trek into southern France, and were eventually titled by the native Franks as the ‘Saulnier’ ( also spelled Saunier, Saunie’, Sonier, Sonnier and Sonie’ ), from El Murabetun to supposedly ‘dwellers in the willow’, our Moroccan name and history and our Moorish identity soon forgotten through time. After becoming Huguenots, the family later legitimately made immigration to the Americas. Fifty-three years after the last Moors left Spain, Louis Saulnier was born in Vitre (Bretagne), France. Louis later became the first ‘Saulnier’ to set foot on American soil arriving in Acadia (Nova Scotia) in Canada in 1685. Louis was also on the 1693 census taken at Beaubassin. He and his wife, Louise Bastinaux, also known as Pelletier, had 13 children. Louis died on the 10th of March in 1709. The family eventually spread all throughout the United States in areas such as Louisiana, Massachusetts, South Carolina and California. Pierre Saulnier, of the 3rd generation, was deported to Liverpool, England, but later settled in Cayenne (French Guyana). His daughter Francoise, was also exiled to Liverpool where she married Alain Hebert while they were both prisoners in that country. "

Huguenot skills in Seafaring, naval wars and  activities termed as piracy point to the same activities of many Muslims of north west African lands:
"Huguenots are also credited with killing Ignatius de Azevedo, a jesuit missionary, who is considered a martyr by Catholics. It is reported that about 50 Huguenot privateers, or pirates, operated in the English Channel in 1568, with Plymouth serving as their base. "La Popelinire," a book first printed in 1571, mentions Huguenot pirates and their attack on Santiago, and the author of "History of the Buccaneers of America," was himself a Huguenot buccaneer."


Musselman Lake, Ontario. The area was first settled 1807 by Peter and Jacob Musselman, Mennonites from Pennsylvania. The Mennonites are an ethno-religious group based around the church communities of the Anabaptist denominations named after the Frisian Menno Simons (1496–1561), who, through his writings, articulated and thereby formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders.


Anabaptists Meeting Muslims: A Calling for Presence in the Way of Christ [Paperback]

James R. Krabill (Author), David W. Shenk (Author), Linford Stutzman

Muslims in Colonial America

Puritan descendants discussion boards record their Huguenot ancestors:
Puritan John Girardaeu was the descendant of French Huguenots who came to Charleston, SC.

I have heard Paul Revere was a descendant of Huguenots.

CHARDIN, Sir JOHN (Huguenot)

(born in Paris, 16 November 1643, died in Chiswick, London 5 January 1713)
Jean Chardin 1739  in Persia  in "On the roads of Europe and Asia"
An Huguenot, migrated to London from France, jeweler who traveled extensively in Asia and wrote the most detailed foreign account of the Persia of his time.  He traveled on behalf of his father to India. He was welcome everywhere in the Muslim lands like an invited chief guest. Question is How? and Why? it could happen at times described in all European literature with high levels of enmity? CHARDIN, Sir JOHN, a Huguenot jeweler,  traveled extensively in Asia and wrote the most detailed foreign account of the Persia of his time.
CHARDIN continued his father's business and ties with Muslim kings and courts, Mughal Inda , Persia, Constantinople and more, and helped England to establish English trade to India and East India Company which later developed into a colony.  
Chardin was member of Royal Society London, the most advanced scientific research and development organization of its times. Other Huguenot members of the society included Paul Rycaut, who served as English consul at Smyrna in Turkey, Chardin's brother Daniel, who settled in Madras Inda.
The Worlds of the East India Company,  by  H. V. Bowen, Margarette Lincoln, Nigel Rigby,  Boydell & Brewer, 2002

By Anonymous 17th century ("Le Siege de La Rochelle" F. de Vaux de Foletier) 
Soubise 12 15 Septembre 1625

"Huguenots were prominent: They provided 10 percent of the initial capital for the Bank of England, and six of the original governors, including the chairman, were Huguenots"
Remembering the Huguenots. The expulsion of Protestants from France 300 years ago helped coin the word `refugee'
By Christopher Andreae, Special to The Christian Science Monitor MARCH 28, 1985

Sir Issac Newton lived among Huguenots as very young

The Huguenot church and Sir Isaac Newton's house, being the history of Orange Street Chapel, known as Leicester Fields Chapel from 1688 to 1775, and of Sir Isaac Newton's house adjoining
Masters, Walter E. , [London, G. Reynolds, Ltd., Printers, 1910?]

Huguenot Heritage: The History and Contribution of the Huguenots in Britain,  2001, by Robin Gwynn, ISBN-13: 978-1902210353  ISBN-10: 1902210352 
Reviews Discussions:
How Did the Puritans Become Unitarians?

Puritan Freemasons Brotherhood
A Chapter from Masonic History... GEORGE WASHINGTON-MASTER MASON by William E. Parker
[Provides how Huguenot being the transmitters help us trace Islamic heritage reaching America]
Legacy Of Muslim Spain by Ed. Salma Khadra Jayyusi
Brown, Danelle Marqui. 2016. Minerva’s Army and the Battle for Green Gold: Leiden University as a Catalyst for the Seventeenth Century Spice Trade. Master's thesis, Harvard Extension School.

The Huguenots: London's First Refugees
The Republic’s Renegades: Dutch Converts to Islam in Seventeenth-Century Diplomatic Relations with North Africa In: Journal of Early Modern History Author: Maartje van Gelder1 "Dutch convert to Islam, Murat Picinino Rais, described to be formerly Ulbe Janszoon- may be a born Muslim, the conversion story may be inroduced later to coverup the false narration of whole histry of period

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