How Darwin's Statements Imply His Monotheism & the History of the Ideas of Human Evolution Can be Traced Back to the 7th Century Qur'an

Why Darwin's Repeatedly Stated Belief in One God and No More is Rarely Ever Mentioned by Mainstream Edu Academia?

Why Ideas of Human Evolution clearly stated in the 7th Century Qur'an are ignored?

Darwin (1809 -1882)  was not polytheist, trinitarian or atheist. He was, as appears in his most well known work but rarely read, a monotheist much like other enlightened scholars of his time and much like his predecessor Newton. Not a single time Darwin used the word Christ in “ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES” in the first or sixth edition. The 6th Edition is often considered the definitive edition and is our main reference here. The sixth edition published 1872 was the last edition edited by Darwin, which introduced the term "evolution" first time to the west.
Darwin used title pages for quotes from previous scholars indicating his consistency with their ideas such as:
"But with regard to the material world, we can at least go so far as this—we can perceive that events are brought about not by insulated interpositions of Divine power, exerted in each particular case, but by the establishment of general laws."—Whewell: "Bridgewater Treatise".

The above quote shows that the laws of changes are Divinely established.

"To conclude, therefore, let no man out of a weak conceit of sobriety, or an ill-applied moderation, think or maintain, that a man can search too far or be too well studied in the book of God's word, or in the book of God's works; divinity or philosophy; but rather let men endeavor an endless progress or proficience in both."—Bacon: "Advancement of Learning".

The above quote confirms that “God’s words” (the revelations of prophets) and the “book of God's works” our universe is beyond human capacity to be completely understood. However it must be studied. It must be pointed out that looking at Darwin's critical approach it can only be accepted in principle and does not mean that he believed in wholesale religious books.

And also, he quotes from an earlier work to support his views e.g

several series of animated beings, from the simplest and oldest up to the highest and most recent, are, under the providence of God

The above is a clear evidence that Darwin believed the God is in control of all changes. The above quote describes appearance of man in the world as “the highest and most recent” and the words under the providence of God are especially worthy of attention. That testifies to Darwin's monotheistic belief that man must be thankful to the only one single God for His preference, guardianship, and care for man making him privileged to be the best of His creation.

Darwin believed that the concept of evolution elevates the image of God by pointing out sophisticated processes of change and series of products in addition to merely the final products that we see now. At a place he wrote in the sixth edition of his work that denying the developments or evolution is demeaning of His Divine powers, which in his words: “makes the works of God a mere mockery and deception;

He stated the same idea at another place, that setting off simple creatures in the beginning along with rules of natural selection to lead processes through series of changes adds grandeur to the image of the creator. He wrote:

"There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone circling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."

At one place quoted below Darwin compares the development of telescope in the human civilization with his view of the mechanism of the evolution of the human eye. It can be clearly seen that he refers to the processes of the "
natural selection or the survival of the fittest" as divine and in his words : "the works of the Creator"

"It is scarcely possible to avoid comparing the eye with a telescope. We know that this instrument has been perfected by the long-continued efforts of the highest human intellects; and we naturally infer that the eye has been formed by a somewhat analogous process. But may not this inference be presumptuous? Have we any right to assume that the Creator works by intellectual powers like those of man? If we must compare the eye to an optical instrument, we ought in imagination to take a thick layer of transparent tissue, with spaces filled with fluid, and with a nerve sensitive to light beneath, and then suppose every part of this layer to be continually changing slowly in density, so as to separate into layers of different densities and thicknesses, placed at different distances from each other, and with the surfaces of each layer slowly changing in form. Further we must suppose that there is a power, represented by natural selection or the survival of the fittest, always intently watching each slight alteration in the transparent layers; and carefully preserving each which, under varied circumstances, in any way or degree, tends to produce a distincter image. We must suppose each new state of the instrument to be multiplied by the million; each to be preserved until a better is produced, and then the old ones to be all destroyed. In living bodies, variation will cause the slight alteration, generation will multiply them almost infinitely, and natural selection will pick out with unerring skill each improvement. Let this process go on for millions of years; and during each year on millions of individuals of many kinds; and may we not believe that a living optical instrument might thus be formed as superior to one of glass, as the works of the Creator are to those of man?"

The Mechanism of Evolution as Stated by Darwin

Darwin explained his view of the mechanism of evolution, using the example of the development of telescope in the world,  in the above quoted paragraph. He clearly states that the development or evolution of telescope in our world is not by unintelligent random mistakes but by " long-continued efforts of the highest human intellects". Then as the subsequent sentences makes it clear that he left the statement of the role of the society, community or civilization which seemed obviously understood by his readers in this context as logical inference that can be filled to complete the story of the evolution of telescope. e.g "We must suppose each new state of the instrument to be multiplied by the million; each to be preserved until a better is produced, and then the old ones to be all destroyed." It is the digestion of the developments of the telescope, acceptance, spread of replicating for changes demands, its use for beneficial or destructive purposes resulting in the growth or destruction of the community, sales, technology transfer from generation to generation and city to city etc. This function of society represents the process of natural selection and survival of the fittest for microscope in our world. After stating the development of the eye can be compared with the development of telescope in the intellectual human world he expresses his realization that the complexity of the eye is too high to be attributed to the meagre intellectual capacity of human beings to play any constructive role in its development so he reassures that he means "a somewhat analogous process" :
"and we naturally infer that the eye has been formed by a somewhat analogous process. But may not this inference be presumptuous? Have we any right to assume that the Creator works by intellectual powers like those of man?"
Thus he states that the agents, or things directly affecting the evolutionary developments in the biological world for the development of the eye must be far more intellectually capable than human beings as he stated later "Let this process go on for millions of years; and during each year on millions of individuals of many kinds; and may we not believe that a living optical instrument might thus be formed as superior to one of glass, as the works of the Creator are to those of man?" Looking too much in the words of Darwin will take us close to assuming angels working for the evolution of the eye.

The proof of the pudding is in the eating

The line of inquiry and train of thought expressed in the “ON THE ORIGIN OF SPECIES” sixth edition is almost in contrast with the version that is universally attributed to Darwin today by academia and media. The consistent approach of learning from general human observations of nature and utilizing them to investigate a particular problem intelligently is not seen in both versions equally. Does sixth edition approach show a more persistent progressing successful problem solver systematic and genius Darwin? Does an approach shows a slightly erratic somewhat pessimistic doubtful of the worth of spending time and effort in staying more at that course? Which image and characteristics match the Darwin that people knew?  Does it seem one of them is real Darwin that walked in London and other fake invented literary forgery?

Issac newton similarly as a staunch Monotheist Sought to discover how world exhibits wisdom of God through order, harmony, rules, structure and systems.

Issac newton as a staunch Puritan and Deist believed that early man was Monotheist against "hideous doctrine Trinity"

Isaac Newton wrote that his main motive behind his scientific endeavors is to know God and His actions in the light of nature; nature is a creation and in continuous control of God. At the end of his famous book OPTICKS Issac Newton wrote:

“And if natural Philosophy in all its Parts, by pursuing

this Method, shall at length be perfected, the

Bounds of Moral Philosophy will be also enlar-

ged. For so far as we can know by natural

Philosophy what is the first Cause, what Power

he has over us, and what Benefits we receive

from him, so far our Duty towards him, as well

as that towards one another, will appear to us

by the Light of Nature. And no doubt, if the

Worship of false Gods had not blinded the Heathen,

their moral Philosophy would have gone

farther than to the four Cardinal Virtues; and

instead of teaching the Transmigration of Souls,

and to worship the Sun and Moon, and dead

Heroes, they would have taught us to worship

our true Author and Benefactor, as their Ancestors

Sons before they corrupted themselves did under the Government of Noah and his

Optics by Sir Isaac Newton(1642-1727) published by London : Printed for William Innys in 1730

"a school of thought existed which, from at least the mid-seventeenth century, identified the existence of a universal, monotheistic religion and a common language which had descended directly from Adam and Noah as their descendants scattered across the globe"

American Founding Fathers Deism is Rooted in Islamic Monotheism

Word Deism, is derived from Latin Deus (God Almighty) and which is derived from common  Arabic and persian forms of words ذات الله عز وجل , ذات باري تعالى and many common words in Arabic and Persian for Monotheistic God. Arab and persians mostly use the first part ذات , pronounced as "Dhat" frequently in speech and writing.  A reference" Dr. Pocock's research footnote in Page 1, 1 Andrew Motte’s translation of the GeneralScholium to Isaac Newton’s Principia (1729)

Muslim Predecessors of Darwin millennium before him suggesting the same mechanisms of biological evolution and survival of the fittest 

Charles Darwin was not the first person to write about evolution.  In his book Origin of Species he gives credit to dozens of naturalists who discussed the idea before him. The works he did not refer but must be well known in his time as evidenced by the other scholars associated with University of London e.g Professor Edwin Johnson(1842–1901) who frequently refers to medieval Arabic literature.

A Muslim scientist al-Jahiz (died 868 AD) describing the characteristics of animals remarked:

"Animals engage in a struggle for existence, and for resources, to avoid being eaten, and to breed." He added, "Environmental factors influence organisms to develop new characteristics to ensure survival, thus transforming them into new species. Animals that survive to breed can pass on their successful characteristics to their offspring."

The Big Question:
How did those Muslims reached at that understanding of the human past biological evolutionary history?

An Answer That May be Shocking to Some
 Qur'an describes the biological evolution that pre-Darwin Muslim Scholars repeat.

Qur'an is replete with exhortations against blind faith in ancestral traditions. It promotes questioning received information on the basis of its harmony with reason, universal truths and natural evidences. It frequently reminds men of being equal and personally answerable as viceroys of Allah on the earth and they must fulfill the demands of that privileged status, including independent, free, fact finding and abiding by truth attitude with an iconoclastic zeal.

وَيُرِيكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ ﴿ البقرة٧٣
He shows you His signs so that you use your mind Quran 2 Baqara V 73

Sura 29 Al-Ankabut v 20

قُلْ سِيرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيْفَ بَدَأَ الْخَلْقَ ۚ ثُمَّ اللَّـهُ يُنشِئُ النَّشْأَةَ الْآخِرَةَ ۚإِنَّ اللَّـهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ ﴿

Say: Journey in the land, then behold how He originated creation; then (similarly) God will causes second growth ( after death) to grow; God is powerful over everything, (20

 يَا أَيُّهَا الْإِنسَانُ مَا غَرَّكَ بِرَبِّكَ الْكَرِيمِ﴿٦ الَّذِي خَلَقَكَ فَسَوَّاكَ فَعَدَلَكَ ﴿٧ فِي أَيِّ صُورَةٍ مَّا شَاءَ رَكَّبَكَ ﴿٨ كَلَّا بَلْ تُكَذِّبُونَ بِالدِّينِ ﴿٩ وَإِنَّ عَلَيْكُمْ لَحَافِظِينَ ﴿١٠ كِرَامًا كَاتِبِينَ ﴿١١ يَعْلَمُونَ مَا تَفْعَلُونَ ﴿١٢إِنَّ الْأَبْرَارَ لَفِي نَعِيمٍ ﴿١٣ وَإِنَّ الْفُجَّارَ لَفِي جَحِيمٍ ﴿١٤﴾ سورة الإنفطار

O Man! What deceived thee as to thy generous Lord (6) Who created thee and straightened thee up and balanced thee  (7) and composed thee after what form He would(i.e the best)? (8) No indeed; but you cry lies to the day of ( resurrection and) judgment; (9) yet there are over you (angels deputed as your) watchers (10) (who are) noble, writers (11) who know whatever you do. (12) Surely the pious 
       shall be in bliss( in heavens), (13) and the wicked shall be in a fiery furnace (14)
Chapter   82 v6-14 Al-Infitar

:In the above the words
")who created thee and straightened thee up and balanced thee  (7"
point to the the human development from four pedal animal to a finely balanced bipedal erect i.e Homo Erectus

سورة السجدة
ذَٰلِكَ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ الْعَزِيزُ الرَّحِيمُ ﴿٦﴾ الَّذِي أَحْسَنَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقَهُ ۖ وَبَدَأَ خَلْقَ الْإِنسَانِ مِن طِينٍ ﴿٧﴾ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسْلَهُ مِن سُلَالَةٍ مِّن مَّاءٍ مَّهِينٍ ﴿٨﴾ ثُمَّ سَوَّاهُ وَنَفَخَ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِهِ ۖ وَجَعَلَ لَكُمُ السَّمْعَ وَالْأَبْصَارَ وَالْأَفْئِدَةَ ۚ قَلِيلًا مَّا تَشْكُرُونَ ﴿٩

Quran Chapter 32 As-Sajda Verses

He is the knower of the Unseen and the Visible, the All-mighty, the All-compassionate, (6) who has created all things well. And He originated the creation of man out of clay, (7) then He fashioned his progeny of an extraction of mean water, (8) then He shaped him, and breathed His spirit in him ( i.e awakening of mind). And He appointed for you hearing, and sight, and hearts; little thanks you show. (9)

The last sentence of Darwin in " The Origin of Species" clearly shows his belief that Universe from its beginning to present and continuing forward is following the design and rules of God. And discovering as much we can those rules is the most interesting task that not only brings man closer to his creator but also helps expose yet unknown grandeurs in His works. Darwin wrote: "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator"
Prophet Noah and his arc is well known that carried the sole survivors of the great flood who became our common forefathers. The nation of Noah was unique that it was the only modern human community at that time. Here Noah addresses his nation and after few sentences where he reminds them of God's blessings on them he describes their unique and better etiquette, way of life. Now the text uses the words that are used for distinctively better than other nations. However there was no other human community or nation. Does't it suggest Noah is comparing his modern human nation with their cousins who remained neo-human. It is now known that early human, Noah times, modern human and hominids existed and because of their similar physical needs shared similar locations.

Qur'an Chapter 71 Nuh V11-14
يُرْسِلِ السَّمَاءَ عَلَيْكُم مِّدْرَارًا ﴿١١ وَيُمْدِدْكُم بِأَمْوَالٍ وَبَنِينَ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ جَنَّاتٍ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ أَنْهَارًا ﴿١٢ مَّا لَكُمْ لَا تَرْجُونَ لِلَّـهِ وَقَارًا ﴿١٣ وَقَدْ خَلَقَكُمْ أَطْوَارًا ﴿١٤

and He will loose heaven upon you in torrents (11)and will succour you with wealth and sons, and will appoint for you gardens, and will appoint for you rivers. (12) What ails you, that you do not look for your dignity in your relationship with God, (13) seeing He created you(i.e the nation) to have etiquettes (manners)  (14) 

"أن الأطوار اختلافهم في الأخلاق والأفعال"
  (تفسير النكت والعيون/ الماوردي (ت 450 هـ

{ وقد خلقكم أطواراً }: جملة حالية تحمل على الإيمان بالله وإفراده بالعبادة، إذ في هذه الجملة الحالية التنبيه على 

تدريج الإنسان في أطوار
تفسير البحر المحيط/ ابو حيان (ت 754 هـ)

وقال جماعة: هي إشارة إلى العِبْرَةِ في اختلافِ خَلْقِ ألْوَان الناسِ وخُلُقِهم، ومِلَلِهم، والأطْوَارُ: الأحْوَالُ المختلفة.
تفسير الجواهر الحسان في تفسير القرآن/ الثعالبي (ت 875 هـ)
مِلّة: ( اسم ) 
الجمع : مِلَل 

المِلَّةُ : الشريعةُ أو الدِّينُ 

 وَلَقَدْ خَلَقْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ صَوَّرْنَاكُمْ ثُمَّ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ لَمْ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ ﴿ ١١ سورة الأعراف
We created you, then We shaped you, then We said to the angels: 'Bow yourselves to Adam'; so they bowed themselves, save Iblis -- he was not of those that bowed themselves. (11Al-A'raf chapter 7

The Qur'anic verse below describes Adam & Eve were chosen from among many such individuals and thus received the Human mind in an event that is described in the Chapter 32 As-Sajd v 9  i.e "and breathed His spirit in him ( i.e awakening of mind). This selection of individuals or choice that was implemented is described as His tradition that He follows in selecting prophets from a population of common people.

 إِنَّ اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَىٰ آدَمَ وَنُوحًا وَآلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿٣٣﴾ سورة 3  آل عمران

God chose Adam and Noah and the House of Abraham and the House of Imran above all beings, the (33) Chapter 3 Al-i-Imran V33

Quran chapter Ash-Shu'ara, verse 184, has words"who created you" use the story of creation that means the addressee is whole humanity or the specific contemporary section of humanty at general human level. Interestingly in addition a separate group is mentioned in addition to conpemporary humans , "the ancients" which points to this additional group being some people different from contemporary humans like early humans. Most translations omit the Arabic word  جِبِلَّةَ that has been included in the translation here as "instinctive".  The reason of ommisson is obvious that it creates many problems and raises seemingly unanswerable questions about whole traditional human history. 

وَاتَّقُوا الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالْجِبِلَّةَ الْأَوَّلِينَ ﴿١٨٤
Fear Him(God) who created you(Humans), and the generations of the instinctive ancients.' (184)

For humans Qur'an never uses the word جِبِلَّةَ , instinctive, on the contrary it always use the alternate word فِطْرَتَ ,Nature, it acclaims to be capable of using freewill with reason, ratioale and self control. However the Arabic word جِبِلَّةَ "instinctive" used in the above verse for ancients points to almost absensence of things like freewill with reason, ratioale.

Also in Chapter Ya-Sin verse 62.   جِبِلاًّ  a form of the same word  جِبِلَّةَ  is used which indicates the state of the actors.

 وَلَقَدْ أَضَلَّ مِنْكُمْ جِبِلاًّ كَثِيراً أَفَلَمْ تَكُونُواْ تَعْقِلُونَ
He(Satan) led astray many a throng of you; did you not understand? (62)

In this sense جِبِلاًّ depicts the people who resist enlightenment and reformation of Islam and insist continuing the tradoitions of ignorance, in Qur'anic terms following the Satan,  are depicted as people who are in the pre-human stage when they had not yet got senses of reason and understanding.

  Darwin Writes

"we must likewise admit that all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth may be descended from some one primordial form"
p 425, Origin of Species

Qur'an Points to Complete Equality Between Both Males and Females As Regards Their Origin

verse 1, Chapter 4 سورة النساء
ا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّـهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا ﴿ 
Mankind, fear your Lord, who created you of a single soul, and from it created its mate, and from the pair of them scattered abroad many men and women; and fear God by whom you demand one of another, and the wombs; surely God ever watches over you. (4:1)  Translation by Professor A J Arberry

Quran uses the word NafunWahidah, single living being/soul/cell,   نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ   for the thing  Darwin uses "one primordial form" of life 

In the above verse  word  أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ  " Mankind"  includes first members Adam & Eve equally as you and me. Thus it is allusion towards the fact that all humankind arose from a single living thing(being) including both the sexes.

The concept that Eve born from the Adam's rib of Adam is not Qur'anic. The Qur'anic point is complete equality between both males and females as far as their origin in concerned.  It seems af the fall of Islamic civilization and they lost ability to keep abreast with the Qur'anic studies and start blind-following whoever they thought knowledgeable from false pretences.

The following verse 6:98 makes the above clearer:

وَهُوَ الَّذِي أَنشَأَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ   سورة الأنعام٩٨
It is He who produced you from one living soul, Al-An'am 6:98

Dr. Zaghloul El-Naggar A Renowned Islamic Scholar Explains That The Notion of the Creation of Eve from Rib of Adam is Against Qur'an and is Un-islamic

Monotheist Darwin's Interpretation of the Mechanism of Evolution

The Divine Law of The Survival of the Fittest i.e the Best 

Qur'anic word for the law is the Arabic word  اِصْطَفَى which in English can be expressed as 
- to pick out  most suitable from a greater number
- to select; choose as the best or most suitable
- remove impurities from something; purify for an objective/use

اللَّـهُ يَصْطَفِي مِنَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ رُسُلًا وَمِنَ النَّاسِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ ﴿سورة الحج٧٥
God chooses (best as) message-bearers from among the angels as well as from among men. But, behold, God is all-hearing, all-see­ing: (22:75)Al-Hajj

 إِنَّ اللَّـهَ اصْطَفَىٰ آدَمَ وَنُوحًا وَآلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ ﴿آل عمران٣٣ 
Indeed, Allah chose Adam(from His creations) and Noah (from decendents of Adam)  and the family of Abraham ( from nations)  and the family of 'Imran over the worlds - (3:33)Al-i-Imran

وَإِنَّهُمْ عِندَنَا لَمِنَ الْمُصْطَفَيْنَ الْأَخْيَارِ ﴿سورة ص٤٧

 and in Our sight they( the believers, activists for the reformation)  are of the chosen( for ultimate success), the excellent. (38:47) Sad


Darwin's writings on the mechanism of evolution indicate his belief  that our world is comprehensively in control of a supremely intelligent single Creator. Darwin is seen interested to find mechanisms and the laws of the Creator working through the early forms of life and bringing changes just like Newton describes the "laws" of motion as divinely set but give rise to falling bodies and all other motions.  Darwin's objective, as shown above seems to include looking more closer to the changes to life, in the Nature as a creation of God, to get a better idea of how His Almighty powers express in the evolutionary development of living beings. Darwin's postulates existed in the writings of Muslim scholars lived more than five to ten centuries before him during the growth and height of Islamic Civilization. The same ideas can be traced earlier to the time of the prophet SAW as they can be clearly seen stated in the Qur'an. Most interestingly Qur'an uses the human evolution as an expression of the grandeur: power, control, guidance and benevolence of the Creator, as what Darwin stated in the last sentence of his book:  "There is grandeur in this view of life, with its several powers, having been originally breathed by the Creator into a few forms or into one; and that, whilst this planet has gone circling on according to the fixed law of gravity, from so simple a beginning endless forms most beautiful and most wonderful have been, and are being evolved."
However there is a difference, Qur'an clearly describes evolution as a continuity of Gods involvement with His creations for their development, growth & guidance while Darwin's last statement describes all those endowments of the Creator granted to the creation within a package at the time of its first moment of creation. The Qur'anic description of continuous involvement of the Creator is consistent with the fact that any benevolence remains an unnecessary burden till some ability to realize its value, utility are acquired; and a question in addition is as to why a benevolent creator unlike a conscientious parent would leave its creation as an newborn child abandoned to care for itself. It remains to be seen how much the last statement of Darwin, in that respect, is consistent with his stated views in the rest of his book.
 After the decay of the Islamic Civilization Muslims attitude towards those ideas changed and these ideas became almost taboo. 

In addition it establishes a direct evidence that at the earliest stage of Islam the Qur'an already contained highest level of scientific information about human anthropology with impressive and intellectually satisfying details that set Muslims to be leaders and in no need to learn from any other nation in the world such as by resorting to translations of Greeks.

It can be seen that the article is kind of a draft, consisting of my notes. It is not a completely edited, properly proofread article. I couldn't improve it for many years and then decided to post it as such. 

  If you like, you can help me improve the work in anyway e.g by pointing out a mistake/incorrect thing, pl. quote the words of the article, explaining your opposite view with your opposite evidence for me to understand clearly. Thank You in advance

Ehsan Butt, President ARFA
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